Sunday, March 28, 2010
Wednesday, March 3, 2010
- Types of Marketing Materials:
Cedar, western red
- Metal: Good conductor of heat and electricity, strong, hard, durable, heavy, waterproof
Wood: hard, waterproof, organic, insulator of heat and electricity, heavy
Fabric: Light, Strong, flexible, insulator of heat and electricity
Minerals: Hard, Strong,waterproof, dissolvable
Iron (pronounced /ˈаɪ.ərn/) is a metallic chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. Iron is a group 8 and period 4 element and is therefore classified as a transition metal. Iron and iron alloys (steels) are by far the most common metals and the most common ferromagnetic materials in everyday use. Fresh iron surfaces are lustrous and silvery-grey in color, but oxidize in air to form a red or brown coating of ferric oxide or rust. Pure single crystals of iron are soft (softer than aluminium), and the addition of minute amounts of impurities, such as carbon, significantly strengthens them. Alloying iron with appropriate small amounts (up to a few per cent) of other metals and carbon produces steel, which can be 1,000 times harder than pure iron.
Pure iron is a metal but is rarely found in this form on the surface of the earth because it oxidizes readily in the presence of oxygen and moisture. In order to obtain metallic iron, oxygen must be removed from naturally occurring ores by chemical reduction – mainly of the iron ore hematite (Fe2O3) by carbon at high temperature. The properties of iron can be modified by alloying it with various other metals (and some non-metals, notably carbon and silicon) to form steels.
Iron is used in household items like knives, pots, pans and cutlery.
Copper (pronounced /ˈkɒpər/, KOP-ər) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is rather soft and malleable and a freshly-exposed surface has a pinkish or peachy color. It is used as a thermal conductor, an electrical conductor, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.
Copper metal and alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. There may be insufficient reserves to sustain current high rates of copper consumption. Some countries, such as Chile and the United States, still have sizable reserves of the metal which are extracted through large open pit mines.
Wood is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension) embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression. In the strict sense wood is produced as secondary xylem in the stems of trees (and other woody plants). In a living tree it transfers water and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues, and has a support function, enabling woody plants to reach large sizes or to stand up for themselves. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.
People have used wood for millennia for many purposes, primarily as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, tools, weapons, furniture, packaging, artworks, and paper. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to make inferences about when a wooden object was created. The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at that time.
Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic amorphous solid materials used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.
The word is derived from the Greek πλαστικός (plastikos) meaning fit for molding, and πλαστός (plastos) meaning molded. It refers to their malleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that allows them to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes—such as films, fibers, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, and much more.
A glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle, and often optically transparent. Glass is commonly used for windows, bottles, modern hard drives and eyewear, and examples of glassy materials include soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, Muscovy-glass, and
aluminium oxynitride. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.
Glass plays an essential role in science and industry. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art.
Definition : 1 )able to be maintained at a certain rate or level : sustainable fusion reactions.
2 )Ecology (esp. of development, exploitation, or agriculture) conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources.
3 )able to be upheld or defended
source : dashboard dictionary
Sustainability is related to the quality of life in a community -- whether the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community are providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future.
exp : Materials
- Metal like titanium are very sutainable
- woods like lumber are also quite sustainable
- Sustainable materials in clothing are easily recycled
- are made to last indefinitely and have the least negative effects on environmental health. www.asicentral.com/asp/open/content/content.aspx
- products providing environmental, social and economic benefits while protecting public health, welfare, and environment over their full commercial
- exp : As concluded by SPC's Training Manual, sustainable products include wood certified as managed pursuant to Forest Stewardship Council principles (www.fscus.org), Patagonia's organic cotton clothing (www.ota.com), and DesignTex fabric, (www.dtex.com).
- source : http://www.sustainableproducts.com/info.html
Sustainable design definition
- is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to comply with economical , social and ecological
- is a general reaction to depletion of non-renewable resources / global environmental crisis
exp : green buildings like Cecil and Ida green building in MIT Source: wikipedia
A sustainable environment is an environment in which all of the plants, animals, and other forms of life in it are able to exist in the ecosystem without any exterior aid or interference. Granted, this doesn't mean that every single animal will live to die of old age, but it means that the natural order of things is preserved and tucked away from human intrusion. If organisms can thrive, get their own food and water, and inhabit their own shelters, then the environment has provided resources for at least one population of organisms, making the environment sustainable.
An example is a rubber plantation to produce resources for the people